Hints to Tyros
from "The Law and Practice of the Game of Euchre" by A. Professor -1862
Having a sequence of three trumps of which the turn-up card is the smallest, and your partner assists, play the highest, which informs him that you have two more trumps of equal value. As in case the Queen is turned up, and his partner assists, if the dealer holds the King and Ace, making a sequence of three trumps, when the trump is led, or he can ruff, he should play the Ace, which makes his partner understand that he holds the King also. The same in all similar cases.
Part IV
So, also, if a sequence of three or four cards in play shows all the cards above the turn-up card, and your hand continues the sequence, play the highest card for your partner's benefit. Par example: The nine of hearts is turned for trump, and the ten, Queen, and Ace, of hearts, are played to a trick; if you hold the King of trumps play it, because your nine is as good as your King, and by playing the King your partner knows that you have certainly one trump in hand, and moreover, that it requires one of the Bowers to win it.
But if your opponents have ordered up the trump and you hold a similar hand, it is obvious -on the principle of contrariwise, otherwise -that you should play "quite the diverse," to balk them, as you clearly perceive.
Retain the trump card, when your side have adopted it, as long as possible, to benefit your partner; and, on the contrary, dispose of it the first opportunity, to put your adversaries in doubt, when it has been ordered up.
A few more illustrative hints -to each and every player, in a general way -we hope may be taken, as we offer them, in the very spirit of kindness.
Always play to benefit your partner -in every possible way you can with fairness and good order -and to balk your antagonists by masking your hand, for in Euchre, as in Love and in War, all manoeuvres are admissible.
Three trumps, if medium ones only, are sufficient to take up the trump, or to assist your partner, or, ordinarily, to make the trump suit. If you hold Knaves, and commanding cards of two or more suits, it often proves successful to pass both the adoption and the making, to Euchre your adversaries if they adopt or make it. Especially if the other side dealt, for if they pass also you gain the deal.
Always lead a trump to your partner- if eldest-hand, or you have won the rentree- when he adopts or makes the trump- except when he assists and has played one trump- especially if you should hold either of the Bowers only.
When last player and the trick, in a lay suit, if the first or second round, is your partner's, and you hold a single lay card, and one or more trumps, throw away that single card, if so high as a King even, on your partner's trick, for if he holds a card in that suit he will of course lead it, which may enable you to win the trick with a trump.
When your side, having adopted, or made the trump, have lost one trick, you must then play cautiously to prevent being Euchred, for the risk you might venture when playing to make a march would be quite improper when you have lost one trick.
Having lost the first two tricks and won the third, if you have one trump left, lead it- either to make or to save a Euchre- for if your adversaries have a trump larger than yours they must win the odd trick; and, if it is smaller, you may exhaust them and win the fifth trick with your lay card. The only exception to this rule is when you have assisted- or your partner has taken it up- and your partner still retains the trump card; and, if your trump is higher than your partner's, and you have a winning card for the fifth round, you should lead the trump then.
Holding a sequence of trumps, and playing to Euchre the adversaries, always play the highest to balk them; for instance, if you hold Ace, King, and Queen of trumps, and a Bower is led, play the Ace.
When holding the Left-Bower and one other, trump, the Left-Bower guarded as it is termed, be cautious how you separate them, for if the Right-Bower should be led, by playing your smaller trump to it you are sure to win with the Left-Bower.
When you hold the Left-Bower alone, whether you are playing to your partner's adoption or make of the trump, or to Euchre your opponents, ruff with it as soon as you have the chance, at any stage or condition of the play -- otherwise it may fall to the Right-Bower, when the trump is led. Make the Right-Bower in the same manner, if your only trump, when your partner assists or makes the trump, for when he wins the rentree he would almost certainly lead his highest trump, and your Bower, winning it, might sadly injure his game.
In adopting or making the trump you may always rely on your partner to win one of the five tricks.
  It is a rule in play that a lay Queen never wins a trick. This is not strictly correct, but near enough to the truth to be adopted as a general rule.
Keep your mind on the cards, as we fortune-tellers say, and remember how the suits fall in play, so as not to be trumping with a seven or eight a commanding lay card of your partner's -- a sottise, by the way, not unfrequently committed.
Be cautious how you adopt or make the trump when the hostile side are scoring three points; for, if you are Euchred, you put them out, and, in another sense of the expression, you may put out your partner too, which would be grievous.
Opponent to a Lone Player, and holding the seven and nine of one suit, with single cards in each of the other suits -- if Queens even -- never separate the two of suit although there is a single chance only that one of them may win. You will be surprised, and delighted too -- we assure you, you will -- to see how often the nine in such cases prevents the march of the Lone Player, and ruffles his equanimity. We always rely more confidently on a Knave and seven of a lay suit, in such case, than on a lay King single.
We believe we have annunciated this doctrine before; but, excuse us, for truth cannot be too oft asserted. These leading principles in the practice of the game should always be retained in mind, though combinations of cards in the various distributions into hands -- like the myrioramic changes of the Kaleidoscope -- may diversify the manner of the play almost a l' infini. When such peculiar idiosyncrasies require your attention they should be treated -- according to Gunter.
It is quite unnecessary to offer any observations on that branch of the doctrine of chances which might apply to our game, -- or to point out that the dealer's chance of turning up a Knave is seven to one against him; or why, when you adopt or make the trump the chances are in favor of your partner's winning one trick, -- for it is obvious that games, contingent upon chance and combination, cannot be reduced to the exactness of the propositions of Euclid and be made to conform to a "rigid and infallible geometry." Besides, the "certainties of chances" we do not affect to comprehend, but only "have a care o' th' main chance."
"In this journey through life, should dame Fortune's dark frown
Upon you be cast, let it ne'er weigh you down;
Should friends fail to 'assist' and 'pass' heedlessly by,
And you should Euchred be -- why still never say die."
And now, gentle Tyro, -- "Oh you, for whom I write!" -- if you will smile approvingly, with grateful acknowledgment, on this our magnum opus, sweetly,with Tyro-lean air, we will claim no better compensation for our labors than the pleasure of having rendered you a service. Vale.
Special Thanks to Todd Martin and Natty Bumppo