Hints to Tyros
from "The Law and Practice of the Game of Euchre" by A. Professor -1862
In the meantime let us return to our muttons; for, if we have a fault, it is digression.
After the ceremony of the deal has been concluded, it is the duty of the eldest-hand to order up the trump card or pass. He should always order it up at a Bridge, -when not sure of a trick,-as before explained; he should also, of course, (when sure of one trick and has passed accordingly,) make the trump, if the dealer turns it down, and for the same reason that he would order up at the Bridge.
At any other stage of the game he must hold a very strong hand in trumps to order up. The Left-Bower, Ace, and ten of trumps, with an Ace of a lay suit, as a general rule, would be sufficiently strong; or the Ace, King, ten, and seven of trumps-especially if the fifth card in his hand is a high one.
Note: "Hints to Tyros" was printed verbatim in a British book about Euchre; "Euchre: How to Play It" - 1882. The author of the book was simply listed as; "by the Author of 'Poker: How to Play It'".
Part II
The eldest-hand, when strong at the suit turned for trumps, and also strong at the next in suit- in utrumque paratus -should always pass to Euchre the other side if the trump is adopted; for, if it should be turned down he can then make the trump. As a general rule he should always pass for a Euchre when as strong at the next in suit.
Never order up with the two Bowers and the Ace, or other high trump, if you have two cards, even so low as the seven and eight of the same color of the trump, because, if the adversaries adopt the trump you are sure to Euchre them, and if it is turned down you have a lone hand at next in suit.
With the Right-Bower, Ace, and seven of trumps, with a secondary card at the next in suit, it is safe to pass, for you will probably Euchre the hostile side, if the trump is adopted, and you are almost sure of the odd trick at the next suit, if the trump is turned down.
Next In Suit, or Dutching, is deemed by many eminent professors of the game one of the most important elements of play; the principles upon which this rule is founded we will here essay to explain. The pack is composed of just thirty-two cards, of which number twenty-one are thrown round by the dealer for the play of each hand, leaving eleven cards, say one-third of the entire pack, in the talon.
When the dealer and his partner decline to play at the suit turned for trumps, it is fair to presume that neither of them holds a Bower--especially if the turn-up is a court-card. The chances are greatly in favor of the presumption that one of the Bowers has been distributed in the deal, and nearly equal that both of the are out. 
The probability then is that one, if not both of them, are in your partner's hand, yourself having neither. And if the Bowers are not out, it is raison de plus why you may win the odd trick with fewer and weaker cards than in an ordinary hand. Your partner, if a skillful player, will never order up when holding both Bowers only, but will pass for the Euchre, if the trump is adopted, or for next in suit, if turned down--for "so he plays his part."
We have known instances when the eldest-hand's partner has played and made a lone hand at next in suit, when the eldest-hand has made the trump, according to rule, without having a single trump in hand.
At all events the chances are much in favor of making the trump next in suit, and favorable chances should always be embraced. "Have a care o' th' main chance." When you follow this rule, always lead a trump, unless you have the tenace of Right-Bower and Ace, and you should lead the Bower then if you hold commanding lay cards. It is sometimes asserted that if this rule is strictly adhered to the dealer may often win a Euchre by a ruse, in turning down when equally strong at each suit of the color; but in the event of his being strong at both suits, (the exception to the rule, crossing the sit,) may be in your hand. It is a bad rule, we are told, that works only one way, and Exxeptio probat regulam, you know.
The eldest-hand opens the game, and as success frequently depends upon the lead- c'est le premier pas qui coutte -he must bear that fact in mind, and deploy his small force into action skillfully, with decision.
It is a rule with many experienced players to lead through the assisting hand, that is, when the dealer's partner assists, the eldest-hand is always expected to lead a trump, if he has one, in every case, except when a Bower is turned up, or you have the Left-Bower guarded.
The exceptions to this rule, we think, are so multitudinous that the practice is almost as much "honored in the breach of observance."  The rationale of the rule is founded on the supposition that the player who assists may hold but two trumps, and by leading a trump, his trumps and his partner's are brought together, and if you or your partner have commanding cards in lay suits you may make a Euchre. And, moreover, if your partner holds two trumps, by leading through the strong hand up to the weak -- the dealer's partner, assisting, is supposed to be in that position -- you give your partner an opportunity to finesse. These are the only advantages we now revive in memory. If the eldest-hand holds one or two trumps, -especially if small, -with commanding cards in other suits, the trump should then most assuredly be led.
Should he hold three trumps of various value and two lay cards of suit, -the seven and Queen for instance - and is playing to Euchre the dealer, he should always lead the lay seven, for when he wins the rentree with one of his small trumps, the Queen will then either win the trick or force a trump from the opponents. If the eldest-hand's partner should win the first or the second trick he should never return such a lead, because the eldest-hand, if he comprehends his vocation, will never commence the round with an isolated plebeian card, unless for some exceptional cause.
With two trumps, two lay cards of suit, and one single lay card, commence with one of the two lay cards, for one of your trumps may bring you back to your suit, and your second lay card will then probably force the other side to trump. Never open with the single lay card when holding such a hand, because you may have an opportunity of throwing it away on a trick of your partner's, or, when second player, on a lead of a numerical card of the suit of which you have none, which will enable you to ruff its suit, if led by either of your adversaries, and win you a trick.
When playing to Euchre, if you have two or more small trumps with commanding lay cards, lead a small trump as it may enable you to make the high cards when trumps are expended.
When your partner orders up, or makes the trump, always lead him one -- the best you have -- without regard to tenace or Left-Bower guarded.
When, being eldest-hand, you are scoring three points to your game, and your adversaries count one, or nothing, and you hold very weak and sickly looking cards, although this is not a Bridge, yet it is often well to order up and take a Euchre -- especially if a Bower is turned up - rather than risk a lone hand to the other side; and if you are Euchred, you are Euchred - que sara, sara, as we used to say at Florence. Santissima madonna, those days are passed!
If you hold a lay Ace, when opposed to a lone hand, always lead it, for if you hold a King or Queen doubled, you have an additional chance to prevent the march of the lone player.
That condition of the game in the flood tide of luck, termed the Bridge, is fully explained at the close of Chapter III (sorry, you need the rest of the book), to which we respectfully beg leave to refer. When it carries you safely over, praise it. And thus much for your duty as eldest-hand, and we, like England, expect every man to do his duty.
Your performance, as second player,-when "the game's afoot," and the eldest-hand has given you "a taste of his quality,"-is much more circumscribed and simple, consisting mainly in following the suit led, or in ruffing it; and this easy duty and irresponsible continues through each of the five rounds in which you have to play second-fiddle. continue
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